10 Molds and 50 Mycotoxins Evaluated

(EMMA) is for Clinically Significant Mold and Mycotoxins

Understanding EMMA: Your Solution for Mold and Mycotoxin Detection

Why Mold and Mycotoxin Detection Matters

Triggers inflammation
Poor indoor air quality can trigger inflammation, headaches and fatigue

Indoor air quality is a significant health concern, often overlooked until symptoms demand our attention. Molds and mycotoxins can lurk in our homes or workplaces, leading to a range of health issues from allergies to more severe chronic conditions. The Environmental Mold and Mycotoxin Assessment (EMMA) provides a comprehensive approach to detecting these hidden dangers and safeguarding your health by identifying the most harmful molds and mycotoxins.

Molds and Mycotoxins We Test For

The EMMA test is specifically designed to identify ten of the most relevant mold species and fifty dangerous mycotoxins using innovative technology:

  • Mold Species: Includes Aspergillus flavus, known for producing aflatoxin which is linked to liver cancer; Stachybotrys chartarum, notorious for its severe toxicity and association with sick building syndrome; among others.
  • Mycotoxins: Our test covers a broad-spectrum including Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2), highly toxic compounds that can affect liver function and immune system response, and Ochratoxins, which are potent neurotoxins.
Next generation sequencing
Next generation sequencing (NGS)

How EMMA Stands Above the Rest

Utilizing Molecular Detection through MSQPCR and advanced LC/MS/MS technologies, EMMA offers unparalleled specificity and sensitivity in mold and mycotoxin detection. This comprehensive approach ensures that our testing is not only accurate but also superior to other market offerings, providing a detailed profile of indoor environmental health.

Cutting-Edge Science You Can Trust

NGS Can study how we interact with the microbial co-inhabitants.

By applying Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, EMMA offers a comprehensive view of microbial inhabitants in your environment without the limitations of traditional methods. This advanced sequencing provides a detailed analysis of genetic material, allowing us to detect and quantify a wide array of microorganisms with precision.

Stay Informed and Safe

To keep our clients informed, we regularly update our content with the latest findings and advancements in the field of microbiology and indoor air quality testing. This commitment ensures that our clients always have access to the most current and relevant information.

Do not wait for symptoms to tell you there is a problem. Contact Indoor Environmental Systems Inc. today to schedule your EMMA test and take the first step towards a healthier indoor environment. Visit our website or reach out directly through our contact page to learn more about custom microbiota and IAQ testing for your home or office.

EMMA Mold and Mycotoxin Assessment

Molds Tested Mycotoxins Detected
1. Aspergillus flavus 1. Aflatoxin B1
2. Aspergillus fumigatus 2. Aflatoxin B2
3. Aspergillus niger 3. Aflatoxin G1
4. Aspergillus ochraceus 4. Aflatoxin G2
5. Aspergillus penicillioides 5. Ochratoxin A
6. Aspergillus versicolor 6. Ochratoxin B
7. Chaetomium globosum 7. Ochratoxin C
8. Cladosporium sphaerospermum 8. Sterigmatocystin
9. Penicillium brevicompactum 9. Citrinin
10. Stachybotrys chartarum 10. Mycophenolic Acid

Mycotoxins Tested

11. Diacetoxyscirpenol 12. Fusarenon X
13. Nivalenol 14. T-2 Toxin
15. HT-2 Toxin 16. Neosolaniol
17. Satratoxin G 18. Satratoxin H
19. Isosatratoxin F 20. Roridin A
21. Roridin E 22. Roridin H
23. Roridin L-2 24. Verrucarin A
25. Verrucarin J 26. Enniatin A
27. Enniatin A1 28. Enniatin B
29. Enniatin B1 30. Beauvericin
31. Patulin 32. Gliotoxin
33. Cyclopiazonic Acid 34. Viomellein
35. Verruculogen 36. Roquefortine C
37. Chrysogine 38. Emodin
39. Physcion 40. Questin
41. Questinol 42. Ochratoxin α
43. 3-Nitropropionic Acid 44. Zearalenone
45. Zearalenol 46. Alternariol
47. Alternariol monomethyl ether 48. Tentoxin
49. Mycophenolic acid 50. Fumonisin B1, B2, B3

Most Harmful Mycotoxins and Associated Health Concerns

Mycotoxin Associated Health Concerns
Aflatoxin B1 Highly carcinogenic; linked to liver cancer, immune suppression, and growth impairment.
Ochratoxin A Causes kidney damage and possibly cancer; linked to urinary tract tumors and immunosuppression.
Trichothecenes Includes Satratoxin G and T-2 Toxin; causes severe irritation to skin and mucous membranes, immune suppression, and organ damage.
Fumonisins Linked to esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in infants; causes liver and kidney damage.
Zearalenone Mimics estrogen leading to reproductive disturbances, infertility, and has carcinogenic properties.
Sterigmatocystin Potentially carcinogenic; causes liver and kidney damage similar to aflatoxins.
Patulin Toxic to the immune system and possibly carcinogenic; associated with inflammation and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract.
Citrinin Renal toxin which can cause kidney failure; often co-occurs with Ochratoxin A, enhancing its toxicity.
Ergot alkaloids Causes ergotism, which can lead to gangrene, hallucinations, and convulsions.
Gliotoxin Immunosuppressive; strongly associated with exacerbation of lung infections in individuals with compromised immune systems.

This table is not exhaustive but highlights key mycotoxins that are crucial to monitor due to their significant health risks. Each entry in this table has been selected based on the severity of health issues they can cause, underscoring the importance of comprehensive mycotoxin testing in indoor environments like homes and workplaces.

Experience & Trust.

Business professional with a touchscreen interface of environmental consulting services
Indoor Environmental Consulting Services.

IES is Provides air quality services in the United States and internationally and specializes in analyzing samples to determine the presence of mold, bacteria, and other microorganisms (including ERMI, HERTSMI-2, Actino, Mycotoxins, Endotoxins, etc.).

IES collaborates with environmental and medical experts who make crucial decisions about the indoor environment that have an impact on the health of our communities. We employ research and innovation to produce reliable data that people can rely on and to develop time and resource-saving solutions.

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)

Next generation sequencing
NGS Can study how we interact with the microbial co-inhabitants.

By the application of NGS, we can study how you interact with the microbial co-inhabitants without being limited by the methodological constraints we have been subjected to in the past. NGS will allow us to determine and quantify the fullest spectrum of the microbiota in your environment.

Sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within the genome. It includes various methods or technologies that are used to determine the order of the four nucleotides in the DNA strand. The advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods has accelerated biological and medical research and discovery.

IAQ Testing

In addition to microbiota testing, we can evaluate a variety of indoor air quality contaminants and offer real-time remote monitoring with our indoor air quality monitors.

AI Collaboration

Working with AI we generate reports in which we cross-reference symptoms with environmental findings to help patients and doctors find the root cause of complex chronic illnesses.

Contact us for custom microbiota and IAQ testing within your home, office, or transportation environment.

For further information and to book your test, visit Indoor Environmental Systems Inc.

Indoor air test
Indoor air test for chemicals and mold
IAQ monitor
Seven sensors tell you what’s in your air

Navigating the World of Fogging – From Remediation to Probiotic Reinforcement

In our quest to maintain healthy indoor environments, fogging has emerged as a crucial technology when applied correctly.

This blog explores the application of wet, dry, and electrostatic fogging methods, emphasizing the importance of rebalancing the natural biome of home surfaces and the innovative use of probiotics for ongoing environmental management.

After a thorough investigation and resolution of the home for moisture and mold issues fogging may be an integral part of the final cleaning process to remove particulate matter and disinfect.

 Understanding Home Biomes

Petri plate showing numerous Colony forming units representing multi-colored mold and bacteria.

Every home has a natural biome, a community of microorganisms living on surfaces. This biome can become imbalanced due to the proliferation of mold or pathogenic bacteria. Addressing this imbalance is crucial for maintaining a healthy indoor environment.

The Role of Fogging in Deep Cleaning
Fogging is crucial in comprehensive cleaning processes as it facilitates the settling of airborne particles and related substances onto surfaces or air filters, making them accessible for removal. This technique ensures the efficient elimination of these contaminants through later wiping steps.

Wet Fogging

Electrostatic fog
Electrostatic Wet Fogging for disinfection in a school. By Steve McLeod

Wet fogging, especially with an essential oil or glycol-based solutions, is ideal for airborne particulate removal and intensive cleaning. Its larger droplets (10 to 50 micron) ensure better surface coverage and an extended contact time, Due to slower evaporation for the disinfectant to work effectively.

Dry Fogging
Dry fogging, with droplet size of 5 micron or less, often using hydrogen peroxide, is effective against pathogenic bacteria, mycotoxins, endotoxins, and viruses. Its finer droplets reach hard-to-access areas, ensuring comprehensive cleanliness.

Electrostatic Fogging

Electrostatic dry fogging
Electrostatic dry fogging for disinfection.

Electrostatic fogging, adaptable for both wet and dry fogging methods, offers comprehensive and even coverage on all surfaces. This technique excels in thoroughly covering every part of a space, including hard-to-reach corners and crevices, by ensuring the disinfectant is evenly distributed. The key to its effectiveness lies in its electrostatic charge, which enhances the solution’s adherence to surfaces, ensuring a more thorough and lasting application.

Hydrogen Peroxide in Fogging
Hydrogen peroxide is a popular choice in fogging for its broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. It decomposes into harmless byproducts, making it a safe and environmentally friendly option.

The Role of CS4
CS4, a compound crafted from food-grade alcohol and essential oils, stands out as a superior option for both wet and electrostatic fogging. This is due to its dual capacity for disinfection and transferring airborne particles onto surfaces. A notable aspect of CS4 is its contribution to sustained microbial prevention. Thanks to the essential oils it contains, CS4 extends its protective effects for up to 30 days. Beyond its cleaning capabilities, CS4 plays a vital role in preserving a fresh and pleasant environment after treatment.

Reestablishing a Healthy Biome with Probiotics

Probiotic cleaner
Probiotic cleaner micro clean surfaces for up to 7 days.

Once a surface is clean and disinfected, it’s crucial to promptly reintroduce natural soil-based probiotics. This step is key in creating a protective barrier against harmful bacteria and mold. By doing so, these beneficial probiotics effectively occupy space and resources, making it more challenging for pathogenic microbes or mold to establish themselves.
Using fogging methods with Probiotic enzyme products, like those offered by SCD Probiotics, is an effective natural strategy to reestablish and maintain a healthy biome on surfaces. This approach not only cleans but also safeguards surfaces by promoting a beneficial microbial environment.

After cleaning and disinfecting, it’s beneficial to introduce natural soil-based probiotics to the environment to crowd out the progression of pathogenic bacteria and mold.
Fogging with Probiotic enzyme products like those from SCD Probiotics offer a natural way to establish a healthy biome on surfaces.

These probiotics are effective due to:
• Enzymatic Cleaning: They use enzymatic activity to break down and clean grime.
• Organic Matter Removal: By consuming organic matter, these probiotics help in maintaining cleanliness.
• Pathogen Prevention: They populate surfaces, which helps in deterring harmful bacteria.
This method ensures a thorough, microscopic level of cleanliness, contributing to a healthier living space. The probiotics in SCD’s All-Purpose Cleaning Concentrate are designed to remain active on surfaces for up to a week. Unlike standard cleaners that can quickly become decontaminated, these probiotics provide ongoing protection against resilient bacteria. Plus, there’s no need for rinsing or gloves, thanks to the safe and biodegradable formula.

Probiotics tough on messes but gentle on you
Tough on messes but gentle on people and pets.

Key features include:
• Gentle Yet Effective: Unlike harsh cleaners, this probiotic cleaner is kind to your skin and home.
• Highly Concentrated: One bottle makes 2 gallons or 16 spray bottles of ready-to-use cleaner.
• Naturally Scented: Available in lavender or lemongrass, using only organic essential oils.
• Safe Ingredients: Free from harmful chemicals like sulfates, parabens, and ammonia.
• Eco-Friendly and Organic: USDA Certified Organic, made in the USA, and microbiome friendly.

The choice between wet, dry, and electrostatic fogging depends on the specific needs of your space and the nature of the remediation required. Following up with natural probiotics is an innovative step towards ensuring long-term environmental health. This holistic approach to indoor environmental management – combining effective cleaning, disinfection, and probiotic reinforcement – represents the forefront of maintaining and enhancing the health of our indoor spaces.

Demystifying Black Mold: The Role of Mold Testing Services

When it comes to maintaining a healthy living environment, understanding the risks associated with black mold and the importance of mold testing services is crucial. The presence of black mold in homes can pose serious health concerns, making it essential to take proactive measures to ensure the well-being of your family.


The Menace of Black Mold

Black mold, scientifically known as Stachybotrys chartarum, is a type of mold that can grow in damp and humid environments. It’s known for its distinctive dark color and is often associated with areas that have experienced water damage or excessive moisture. While not all black molds are toxic, Stachybotrys chartarum has gained notoriety due to its potential health risks.


Health Risks Associated with Black Mold Exposure

Exposure to black mold can lead to a range of health issues, particularly for individuals with mold sensitivities or compromised immune systems. Common health concerns associated with black mold exposure include:

  • Respiratory Issues: Black mold spores can become airborne and be inhaled, potentially causing respiratory problems such as coughing, wheezing, and irritation.
  • Allergic Reactions: Exposure to black mold can trigger allergic reactions, leading to symptoms like sneezing, runny nose, and skin rashes.
  • Headaches and Fatigue: Individuals exposed to black mold may experience headaches, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating.
  • Aggravation of Existing Conditions: For individuals with asthma or other respiratory conditions, exposure to black mold can exacerbate symptoms.


Mold Testing Services: Uncovering Hidden Threats

Detecting the presence of black mold within your home isn’t always straightforward. Often, mold growth occurs in hidden or less accessible areas, making it imperative to seek professional mold testing services. Mold testing serves as a comprehensive approach to identify the presence of mold, its type, and the extent of the infestation. Here’s how mold testing services can benefit you:

  1. Early Detection: Mold testing services can identify mold growth before it becomes a widespread problem, preventing potential health risks.
  2. Accurate Identification: Different types of molds have varying levels of toxicity. Mold testing helps accurately identify the type of mold present, allowing for appropriate actions.
  3. Customized Remediation: The data gathered from mold testing informs targeted remediation strategies, ensuring effective and efficient mold removal.
  4. Health Protection: By detecting and addressing mold growth, mold testing services protect the health and well-being of your family, especially vulnerable individuals.


Choosing Mold Testing Services Wisely

When it comes to mold testing services, expertise matters. Indoor Environmental Systems, Inc. specializes in comprehensive mold testing to assess the indoor air quality of your home. Our experienced professionals utilize advanced techniques to identify mold and provide actionable insights to create a healthier living environment.


Taking Action for a Healthier Home

The presence of black mold in your home should never be taken lightly. Investing in mold testing services can empower you with the knowledge needed to make informed decisions about your home’s health. At Indoor Environmental Systems, Inc., we are committed to helping you create a safer and healthier living space for you and your loved ones.


Your Path to a Mold-Free Home

Black mold is a formidable opponent, but with the right knowledge and resources, you can protect your family from its potential harm. Don’t wait until the situation escalates – take control of your home’s air quality today. Contact Indoor Environmental Systems, Inc. to explore our mold testing services and ensure a mold-free, healthier home environment. Your family’s well-being is our priority.

Boost Your Home’s Wellness with Local Crawl Space Solutions in Chapel Hill

Crawl spaces may not be the star of the show, but they’re the hidden champions behind your home’s structural well-being and indoor air quality. These under-the-radar areas beneath your floorboards have a pivotal role in sustaining your home’s overall vitality. However, they’re prone to a variety of issues, from moisture problems to structural vulnerabilities. Acknowledging the critical role of crawl space repair propels you towards a healthier, safer home environment. Addressing elements like moisture, mold, insulation, and structural upkeep ensures not just structural integrity, but also lowers the chances of insect proliferation, thereby elevating indoor air quality, comfort, and wellness.

Local Crawl Space Repair in Chapel Hill

Taking care of your crawl space involves a multi-faceted approach that adds layers of protection and health to your home. This includes crucial factors like controlling moisture, enhancing insulation, and reinforcing structural elements. A well-attended crawl space not only averts possible structural issues but also minimizes mold risks and amplifies your indoor air quality.

Why Local Expertise in Chapel Hill Matters

For homeowners in Chapel Hill, tapping into local expertise for crawl space solutions is invaluable. Area-specific professionals are attuned to the climate and geographic challenges unique to Chapel Hill. This local insight allows for a more nuanced and effective approach to crawl space repair.

How to Select Professional Experts for Crawl Space Repair:

  • Experience and Expertise: Look for specialists who understand building science and how changing the crawl space affects the IAQ of the living areas, such as radon levels and ventilation.
  • Certifications and Licensing: Ensure the professionals hold relevant certifications and licenses. This indicates a commitment to industry standards and compliance with local regulations.
  • Customized Solutions: A one-size-fits-all approach doesn’t work for crawl space repair. Seek experts who provide tailored solutions based on your specific crawl space, the IAQ of the living spaces and your budget.
  • Client Testimonials and Reviews: Reading reviews and testimonials from previous clients can provide valuable insights into the quality of service and customer satisfaction.
  • Transparent Pricing and Quotes: Reputable professionals provide detailed, transparent quotes that outline the scope of work and associated costs. Avoid vague or excessively low quotes, as they may be indicative of subpar service.

Need Crawl Space Repairs in Hillsborough? Call the Experts!

The Integral Role of Crawl Space Solutions

Moisture damaged crawl space in Chapel Hill

Specific challenges await crawl spaces in Hillsborough, from diverse soil conditions to distinct local weather. An in-depth understanding of these unique factors is necessary for effective repair. If you’re looking for experts in Hillsborough, consider Indoor Environmental Systems, Inc.

Final Thoughts: Your Peace of Mind

Investing in expert crawl space solutions is more than a financial decision; it’s a commitment to your home’s long-term health. At Indoor Environmental Systems, Inc., we bring to the table a wealth of experience, coupled with a granular understanding of local variables. By opting for our services, you’re not merely buying a service—you’re acquiring peace of mind from professionals committed to holistic excellence in crawl space repair.

Short Quiz

Test Your Crawl Space Knowledge!

Why is controlling moisture in the crawl space crucial?

  1. A) Aesthetic Appeal
  2. B) Prevent Mold Growth
  3. C) Make It Smell Good
  4. D) Just for Fun

What is a key advantage of hiring local crawl space repair professionals in Chapel Hill?

  1. A) They know the best local restaurants.
  2. B) They understand the unique climate and geography.
  3. C) They are always cheaper.
  4. D) They use universal solutions.

What should you consider when choosing crawl space repair professionals?

  1. A) Experience and Credentials
  2. B) Reviews from friends only
  3. C) The color of their logo
  4. D) Lowest price

What does Indoor Environmental Systems, Inc. provide beyond just services?

  1. A) Free T-Shirts
  2. B) Peace of Mind
  3. C) Air Fresheners
  4. D) A Hug


CTA: Call To Action

Ready to Take Your Home’s Health to the Next Level?

Don’t delay any longer! Your home’s wellness and safety are too important to ignore. Contact Indoor Environmental Systems, Inc., today to schedule your crawl space evaluation and get a holistic approach to a healthier home. Call us now!

The Significance of Mold Testing: Your Comprehensive Guide

Mold is a silent, hidden invader that can dramatically affect both your home’s integrity and your family’s health. At Indoor Environmental Systems, Inc., we understand that identifying mold is crucial in creating a safe and healthy living space. Let’s dive into why mold testing is essential and how it benefits you.

Why is Mold Testing Important?

  1. Health & Safety: Testing for mold isn’t just a precaution; it’s a health imperative. Different species of mold come with varying health risks. For individuals with allergies, respiratory conditions, or Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS), identifying the type of mold becomes crucial for targeted remediation.
  2. Types of Molds: Knowledge of mold species is vital for effective treatment. Different molds require specific moisture levels to grow and may produce varying types of mycotoxins. Understanding the species helps us locate its origin and assess the health risks.
  3. Scale of Infestation: Identifying how widespread the mold issue is in your living space enables us to recommend the most efficient and cost-effective treatment options.
  4. Investment Protection: If you’re considering buying a property, mold testing acts as a safeguard. It reveals hidden problems, helping you ensure that your investment is sound.
  5. Post-Remediation Verification: After any remediation process, follow-up tests are essential. These tests provide peace of mind that the treatment was effective, and your living space is mold-free.

What to Expect During Mold Testing

  1. Initial Assessment: Your Indoor Environmental Professional (IEP) starts with a comprehensive review that includes analyzing your home’s layout and discussing any specific concerns you may have.
  2. Sampling: We carefully design a sampling strategy that maximizes informational yield while being cost-effective, ensuring you get the best value for your money.
  3. Data Analysis: Our comprehensive analysis merges visual and olfactory assessments with advanced testing techniques. This includes direct microscopy and DNA analysis, interpreted by your experienced IEP.
  4. Remediation Recommendations: Based on our thorough analysis, we provide you with tailored strategies to effectively tackle your mold issue.

Why Choose Us for Mold Testing?

  1. Commitment to Excellence: At Indoor Environmental Systems, Inc., we use advanced sampling methods and state-of-the-art laboratory techniques, such as DNA analysis, to ensure precise and actionable results.
  2. Comprehensive Approach: We offer more than just mold testing. Our services span a holistic suite of indoor environmental assessments. When combined, these individual components create a synergistic, full-service approach that includes assessments, testing, remediation, consultation, and maintenance plans.
  3. Customer Testimonials: Our reputation speaks for itself, but if you need more assurance, consider the testimonials from satisfied customers who have experienced our comprehensive approach to mold testing and remediation.

Bonus: Are You at Risk for Mold?

Take our quick quiz to find out if your home may be a candidate for mold testing.

Next Steps

Ready to ensure a healthier living environment for you and your family? Contact Indoor Environmental Systems, Inc., today to schedule your mold testing. And stay tuned for our upcoming blog on effective mold remediation strategies.

Quick Quiz: Is Your Home at Risk for Mold?


Answer ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ to the following questions. The more ‘Yes’ answers you have, the higher the likelihood that you may need mold testing.

  1. Do you notice a musty or damp smell in any area of your home?
    • Yes
    • No
  2. Have you or anyone in your family experienced unexplained allergies or respiratory issues recently?
    • Yes
    • No
  3. Has your home experienced flooding or leaks in the past year?
    • Yes
    • No
  4. Do you live in a high-humidity area?
    • Yes
    • No
  5. Are there any visible signs of water damage on your walls, ceiling, or floors?
    • Yes
    • No
  6. Do you frequently use a humidifier in your home?
    • Yes
    • No
  7. Is there poor ventilation in your bathroom, kitchen, or laundry areas?
    • Yes
    • No
  8. Have you seen any visible mold spots in your home?
    • Yes
    • No
  9. Do you have carpeting in damp areas like the bathroom or basement?
    • Yes
    • No
  10. Are there any unexplained stains on your walls or ceilings?
    • Yes
    • No


  • 0-2 Yes Answers: Your home is at low risk, but it’s always good to stay vigilant.
  • 3-5 Yes Answers: Consider monitoring problem areas and improve ventilation.
  • 6-8 Yes Answers: It’s advisable to have a professional assessment for potential mold issues.
  • 9-10 Yes Answers: High likelihood of mold. Immediate professional inspection is strongly recommended.